LBJ Library/Yoichi Okamoto
En español | One of the recommendations of the 1961 White House Conference on Aging concerned improving programs to assist older Americans. Federal, state and local assistance programs were limited, and they spanned the jurisdictions of many departments, agencies and offices with no central focus or direction and coordination. The conference report minced no words: Efforts to remedy the situation had been “sporadic, spasmodic, piecemeal, hesitant, and futile.”
There had been an Office on Aging in the Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW). Since it was within the office of the Commissioner of Welfare, federal programs for older adults were stigmatized as “welfare.”
The Older Americans Act was introduced by Congressman John Fogarty of Rhode Island and Senator Patrick McNamara of Michigan in 1963 to “help older people maintain maximum independence in their homes and communities and to promote a continuum of care for the vulnerable elderly.” The act would establish the U.S. Administration on Aging (AoA) and facilitate the creation of state and area agencies on aging to address the social service needs of older people at the community level.
Building support for the Older Americans Act was AARP’s number one legislative priority in the years 1961 to 1965 and AARP’s first major successful grassroots advocacy campaign. Ernest Giddings, AARP's legislative representative, said, “The bill meets the major organizational recommendations of the White House Conference on Aging and overcomes the present welfare stigma on aging.” Dr. Ethel Percy Andrus, the founder of AARP, was the campaign’s leader, but AARP Executive Director William C. “Bill” Fitch played a prominent behind-the-scenes role in developing and drafting the legislation.
Bill Fitch had the background and experience. His strong working relationship with Congressman Fogarty predated his time with AARP. In 1958, while serving at the Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare, Fitch helped the congressman draft legislation that created the 1961 White House Conference on Aging.
Throughout the legislative process AARP was in full swing. Testimony was presented before Congressional committees when appropriate. Supporting data and arguments were provided to members of Congress as needed. Thousands of letters were written to individual senators and congressmen by AARP and National Retired Teachers Association members.
The final Congressional vote in favor of the Older Americans Act was overwhelmingly bipartisan. In fact, it was almost unanimous. The legislation passed the House by a vote of 393–1 on March 31, 1965, and passed the Senate without a dissenting vote on May 27. President Johnson signed the Older Americans Act of 1965 into law on July 14.
Since 1965, millions of our most vulnerable seniors have relied on the Older Americans Act for their health and economic security. The act helps seniors live independently by:
- Supporting nutrition programs, including Meals on Wheels;
- Providing home and community-based services, including preventive health services and transportation assistance;
- Assisting family caregivers with information and referral, counseling and respite care;
- Preventing and detecting elder abuse; and
- Providing part-time community service employment and training, including the Senior Community Service Employment Program (SCSEP), which has helped millions of low-income older Americans to enter the workforce.
At the signing ceremony, President Johnson remarked, “The Older Americans Act clearly affirms our nation’s sense of responsibility toward the well-being of all of our older citizens. But even more, the results of this act will help us to expand our opportunities for enriching the lives of all of our citizens in this country, now and in the years to come.”
The Older Americans Act was reauthorized in 2016 with AARP’s strong support. AARP CEO Jo Ann Jenkins said the law “is crucial to millions of vulnerable older Americans, providing vital programs and services as well as respite to family caregivers.”