If Social Security turns down your initial application for Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) — as it does in a majority of cases — you have the right to appeal that decision at multiple levels. The same is true of claims for Supplemental Security Income (SSI), the other Social Security–run program that pays benefits to people with disabilities.
First, you can ask Social Security to have a different examiner and medical team reconsider your claim. If they also say no, your next step is to file for a hearing before an administrative law judge, in a special system that Social Security operates for this purpose. About a quarter of applicants who are ultimately awarded SSDI benefits get them only after such a hearing.
Disability hearings are judicial proceedings, but they are very different from a court trial. Rather than courtrooms, they are typically held in offices and special hearing centers the Social Security Administration (SSA) maintains across the country. (With these facilities closed during the COVID-19 pandemic, SSA is offering hearings via online video or telephone.) They generally last from 15 minutes to an hour, but they can run longer, especially if there are witnesses.
While disability hearings are less formal than trials, most claimants bring someone to represent them, according to SSA data — usually a lawyer, though a social worker, professional disability representative or even a relative can play that role. It's your choice, but a study by the federal Government Accountability Office (GAO) found that people who have a representative are nearly three times more likely to be successful.