Yes, under certain conditions. Social Security may pay dependent or survivor benefits to your grandchild if the parents are deceased or disabled or if you have legally adopted the child.
If you have not claimed your own benefits yet, you must show that the grandchild began living with you before turning 18 and that you provided at least half of his or her financial support for one year before the month you became entitled to Social Security retirement or disability benefits. (You’ll want to keep detailed records of that support.) If the child is less than a year old, you must prove that you provided at least half of the baby’s support from his or her birth. The child’s parents, if living, must not be making regular contributions to his or her support.
If you were already receiving Social Security payments when the child came into your care, you must adopt the child for him or her to collect benefits on your earnings record.
For information on what documents you need to provide to establish your grandchildren’s eligibility for benefits on your record, contact Social Security through your online account, by phone at 800-772-1213, or by visiting your local Social Security office. Local offices fully reopened in April 2022 after being closed to walk-in traffic for more than two years due to the COVID-19 pandemic, but Social Security recommends calling in advance and scheduling an appointment to avoid long waits.
Keep in mind
Step-grandchildren are entitled to benefits under the same set of rules and requirements as biological or adopted grandkids.