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What Is Identity Theft and How to Report It   Skip to content

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Identity Theft

En español | Identity theft occurs when someone obtains someone else’s personal information, such as a Social Security number, home address, date of birth or bank account data, and uses it for fraud or other illicit purposes. It occurs often: Identity thieves victimized 16.7 million Americans in 2017, stealing $16.8 billion, according to an annual study by Javelin Strategy & Research, a digital-finance consulting firm.

And it occurs in many forms: Credit-reporting agency Experian lists 20 types of identity theft. (Some, such as tax ID frauds and Social Security number scams, are discussed in greater detail elsewhere in the Fraud Resource Center.) Some identity thieves specifically target older Americans, who are less likely than the general adult population to take precautionary measures such as monitoring bank and credit card accounts online, a 2018 AARP survey found.

Identity thieves have a range of tactics to get what they need, from old school (stealing your mail) to high tech (massive hacks of banks, retail chains and other companies that stockpile consumer data). Scammers claiming to represent government agencies, utilities or big tech firms might call and ask for personal or financial information, or send phishing emails with links that infect your device with data-harvesting malware.

Once they have your information, fraudsters may use it to open new credit accounts and make big-ticket purchases you might not discover until the bills come due. They might get medical treatment, file tax returns or take out loans in your name. The costs are counted not just in money but in time spent chasing down phony accounts, repairing damaged credit and re-establishing your identity with government and financial institutions.

As many ways as there are for fraudsters to poach your identity, there are also many simple steps you can take to help keep them at bay.

Warning Signs

  • Bank and credit card statements list withdrawals or purchases you don’t remember making.
  • You get a bill or invoice for financial activity you don’t recognize or medical services you didn’t receive.
  • Your credit report lists accounts or liabilities you don’t recognize.
  • You are contacted by a debt collector about a debt you don’t owe.
  • You have trouble filing your taxes because the Internal Revenue Service says it already has a return from you.
  • You receive notice from a bank or company you do business with that it has suffered a data breach.


  • Do use security software on your devices, and keep it updated.
  • Do set up online access to your bank and credit card accounts. Check them regularly and contact the bank or card provider immediately if you spot any suspicious activity.
  • Do switch to paperless billing and financial statements, so you get less sensitive information in the mail.
  • Do check your credit reports. You can get one free report every 12 months from each of the three major reporting agencies, Experian, Equifax and TransUnion.
  • Do consider putting a fraud alert or freeze on your credit report, especially if you think personal data has been lost, stolen or exposed in a data breach. A freeze prevents anyone from opening a credit account in your name; an alert requires prospective lenders or creditors to verify your identity.
  • Do file your tax return as early as possible. Tax ID thieves who’ve obtained your personal information will try to beat you to it.
  • Do shred bank statements, tax forms, medical bills and other documents containing personal or financial data before you throw them out.
  • Do use a PIN or other type of passcode for unlocking laptops, tablets and smartphones. If a device is lost or stolen, it will be harder for thieves to get at what’s on it.


  • Don’t use the same password for multiple online accounts. Create strong and varied passwords, and use two-factor authentication if available — it prevents people from accessing your accounts with just the password.
  • Don’t carry your Social Security card, and only carry documents with your Social Security number on them when necessary.
  • Don’t give out your Social Security number or other personal information over the phone unless you are certain who’s asking for it and why.
  • Don’t check email, use social media, or do online shopping or banking on public Wi-Fi networks. Many are poorly secured, leaving openings for hackers to intercept sensitive data.
  • Don’t leave personal information in your car, even if it’s locked.

AARP Fraud Watch Network

AARP’s Fraud Watch Network can help you spot and avoid scams. Sign up for free “watchdog alerts," review our scam-tracking map, or call our toll-free fraud helpline if you or a loved one suspect you’ve been a victim.

More Resources

  • If your identity has been stolen or misused, report it to the Federal Trade Commission at or by calling 877-438-4338. You can also use the website to create a recovery plan and track its progress. 
  • Identity theft by online means can also be reported to the FBI’s Internet Crime Complaint Center.

Published Jan. 18, 2019

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