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How do survivor benefits work?

How Do Social Security Survivor Benefits Work?

 

More than 5.8 million people received Social Security survivor benefits in November 2023. These monthly payments typically go to the spouse, former spouse or children of someone who was receiving or eligible for Social Security benefits. In some circumstances, parents, grandchildren or stepchildren of a late worker may also qualify for survivor benefits.

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In most cases, survivor benefits are based on the amount the deceased was receiving from Social Security at the time of death (or was entitled to receive if he or she died before filing for benefits). You can apply by phone at 800-772-1213 or in person at your local Social Security office. For office visits, Social Security recommends calling in advance and scheduling an appointment to avoid long waits.

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About 65 percent of recipients are widows and widowers (including divorced former spouses of deceased workers — see below). Generally, they can collect survivor benefits from age 60 (50 if they are disabled), at rates ranging from 71.5 percent to 100 percent of the late spouse’s Social Security benefit, depending on the survivor’s age. There is an exception if you are caring for a child of the deceased who is under 16 or disabled; in this case there is no minimum age and the survivor benefit is 75 percent of the deceased’s Social Security payment.

You need not claim survivor benefits as soon as your spouse dies or at your earliest eligibility age. There is no time limit to file, and they actually grow if you delay claiming them until you reach your full retirement age. For survivor benefits, full retirement age is 66 and 2 months for someone born in 1957, 66 and 4 months for those born in 1958 and rising incrementally to 67 over the next several years.

However, depending on your financial situation it might make sense to file as soon as possible after the death is reported to Social Security. Survivor benefits are dated from the time you apply and are not retroactive to the time of death.

Also potentially eligible for survivor benefits are:

  • Minor and disabled children. Just over 2 million offspring of deceased workers were receiving survivor benefits as of November 2023. Qualifying children can collect 75 percent of a late parent’s benefit. To be eligible for survivor benefits the child must be under 18 (or up to 19 and 2 months if they are still in high school full time) or have a disability dating from before they turned 22. Stepchildren and grandchildren may also qualify. In all cases, children must be unmarried to collect survivor benefits. 
  • Parents. Survivor benefits can go to parents age 62 or older who were financially dependent on a son or daughter who dies. The amount is 82.5 percent of the deceased’s benefit for one parent, 75 percent each for two. 
  • Ex-husbands and -wives. The divorced spouses of deceased workers can collect survivor benefits if the marriage lasted 10 years or more. The rules regarding eligibility age are largely the same as for widows and widowers. 

One note on how much of a late worker's benefit amount survivors can receive: Survivor benefits paid to multiple members of one family are subject to the maximum family benefit. That's a cap on how much Social Security will pay out on a single deceased worker’s earnings record. If family members’ collective survivor benefits exceed the maximum, their individual payments will be reduced proportionally to meet the cap.

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Keep in mind

  • If you are already drawing Social Security on your work record, you will receive survivor benefits only if they exceed your own payment. Social Security will pay the higher of the two benefit amounts.
  • Widowed spouses and former spouses who remarry before age 60 (50 if they are disabled) cannot collect survivor benefits. Eligibility resumes if the later marriage ends. There is no effect on eligibility if you remarry at 60 or older (50 or older if disabled). 
  • Other than the remarriage issue and the age parameters for children, there is no time limit on survivor benefits — they are payable for life. 
  • Survivor benefits are distinct from Social Security's lump-sum death benefit, a one-time payment of $255 to a deceased beneficiary's family. To receive this payment, you must file the application (by calling Social Security at 800-772-1213 or visiting your local office) within two years of the person's death.

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