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AARP Nursing Home COVID-19 Dashboard

The COVID-19 pandemic has swept the nation, killing residents and staff of nursing homes and other long-term care facilities. The AARP Public Policy Institute, in collaboration with the Scripps Gerontology Center at Miami University in Ohio, created the AARP Nursing Home COVID-19 Dashboard to provide four-week snapshots of the virus’ infiltration into nursing homes and impact on nursing home residents and staff, with the goal of identifying specific areas of concern at the national and state levels in a timely manner. AARP’s Nursing Home COVID-19 dashboard has tracked five categories of impact since summer 2020, as well as vaccination rates of nursing home residents and health care staff, and is updated every month to track trends over time. 

The AARP Public Policy Institute has been analyzing data on COVID-19 in nursing homes, tracking impacts, and reporting on key findings since June 2020. Beginning in July of this year, the AARP COVID-19 Nursing Home Dashboard has also tracked vaccination rates among nursing home residents and staff, and this December 2021 dashboard presents, for the first time, just-released data on COVID-19 boosters.  

More than a year and a half into the pandemic and with holiday gatherings on the horizon, rates of COVID-19 cases are rising again in nursing homes along with increased community spread. The low rate of booster shots for this vulnerable population is concerning. Fewer than half of residents and less than one-fifth of nursing home staff had received a COVID-19 booster as of November 21.

  • Compared to the previous month, the rates of COVID-19 cases and deaths in nursing homes in the four weeks ending November 21, 2021 were down slightly.
    • The rate of resident deaths dropped from 0.18 to 0.14 per 100 residents. 
    • The rate of new resident cases fell from 1.4 to 1.2 per 100 residents, and the rate of staff cases decreased by a similar amount, from 1.6 to 1.4 per 100 residents. 
    • However, looking at the data in week-long segments tells a different story. The number of cases increased each week during the last month, displaying a familiar and concerning trajectory. 
  • Booster shots are very important to ensure that fully vaccinated residents and staff are fully protected in the likely event of another winter surge. Most nursing home residents were vaccinated in early 2021 and are now due for booster shots. 
    • As of mid-November, just 38% of nursing home residents were fully vaccinated with a booster dose, and only 15% of direct care staff had received a booster shot. 
    • At the state level, the percentage of residents and staff who have received a booster dose ranges from a low of 17% and 6% in Arizona to a high of 70% and 36% in Vermont.  
  • Vaccination rates continue to increase. As of mid-November, about 87% of residents and 78% of staff were fully vaccinated, up from 86% and 74% in mid-October. 
    • There remains many vulnerable nursing home residents and unvaccinated staff who could put them at risk. More than 150,000 nursing home residents and 400,000 direct care staff are not fully vaccinated. 
  • The percentage of nursing homes reporting a staffing shortage was nearly unchanged. In the most recent four weeks, 30% of nursing homes reported a shortage of nursing and/or aides. The percentage of facilities reporting an urgent need for PPE was also unchanged, at 4%.

Since the pandemic started, scant data has been available consistently to help gain a better understanding of the crisis in nursing homes and other long-term care facilities. The country counted mainly on the reporting of news media to glimpse the devastation caused by COVID-19. Organizations such as Kaiser Family Foundation and the COVID Tracking Project also began collecting and publishing vital information from the states. It is important to note that each source collects data differently, so similar information may appear at odds due to variation in precise definitions, types of people and settings included in the measure, and the timeliness and completeness of data collection. Specific to nursing homes: 

  • Many states have required self-reporting by nursing homes and/or other long-term care facilities, but the requirements vary widely. Some states combine data for nursing homes and other long-term care facilities such as assisted living; others combine resident and staff cases and deaths, while others provide limited or no data at all.
  • In May 2020, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) required nursing homes to self-report COVID-19 cases and deaths on at least a weekly basis; these data are reported directly from nursing homes to the federal government and are consistent across all states.  However, the required reporting was not retroactive. As a result, there is a significant undercounting of cases and deaths before June 2020 in this data source.  
  • Beginning in June 2020, the data reported by CMS and by individual states appear to be roughly comparable, though exact comparisons are difficult because of the inconsistency in state reporting.
  • In May 2021, CMS issued an interim final rule and guidance requiring the reporting of nursing home resident and staff vaccination status. Vaccination data were first reported for the week ending May 30, 2021, and were mandated as of the week ending June 13, 2021. CMS made nursing home booster data publicly available on December 10, 2021. 

Staff and residents in nursing homes were hit hard by the first year of the pandemic. Yet federal policymakers were slow to respond to this crisis, and no state has done a good enough job to stem the loss of life. 

AARP has called for the enactment of a 5-point plan to protect nursing home and long-term care facility residents—and save lives—at the federal and state levels:

  • Prioritize regular and ongoing testing and adequate personal protective equipment (PPE) for residents and staff—as well as inspectors and any visitors.
  • Improve transparency focused on daily, public reporting of cases and deaths in facilities; communication with families about discharges and transfers; and accountability for state and federal funding that goes to facilities.
  • Ensure access to in-person visitation following federal and state guidelines for safety and require continued access to virtual visitation for all residents.
  • Ensure quality care for residents through adequate staffing, oversight, and access to in-person formal advocates, called long-term care Ombudsmen.
  • Hold long-term care facilities accountable when they fail to provide adequate care to residents. 

The federal government has taken some action, such as requiring nursing homes to self-report COVID-19 cases and deaths at the federal level, ordering testing, providing limited PPE and other resources to nursing homes, establishing requirements for education on and offering of COVID-19 vaccines to residents and staff, reporting of nursing home resident and staff vaccination status, requiring nursing homes staff vaccinations, and issuing guidance for in-person visitation to resume. AARP continues to urge elected officials to take action to combat this national tragedy, make sure it does not happen again, and ensure that public funds provided to nursing homes and other long-term care facilities are used for testing, PPE, staffing, virtual visits, and for the health and safety of residents. 

With the threat of the new Omicron variant looming, coupled with the Delta variant’s impact, nursing homes continue to face chronic problems that leave residents and staff vulnerable to COVID-19 and other infectious disease outbreaks. While rising vaccination rates give us hope, there remain many vulnerable nursing home residents and many unvaccinated staff who could put them at risk. Booster shots are urgently needed to ensure that residents and staff are protected in the likely event of another surge in cases this winter.

The uptick in COVID-19 cases in August 2021 prompted AARP to call for requiring COVID-19 vaccinations for nursing home residents and workers. AARP has also been leading the way in helping Americans get the facts about the COVID-19 vaccines so they can decide what’s best for them and their families. 

AARP continues engaging with CMS to urge the agency to remain vigilant in efforts to protect long-term care facility residents and staff. A July AARP letter to CMS included recommendations that the federal government commit to working with states, long-term care facilities, and other entities, as needed, to ensure that those facilities can access and administer vaccines for the foreseeable future. Everyone must work together to ensure continued vaccine and booster access and administration. 

AARP will continue to shine a light on what’s happening in nursing homes so that families have the information they need to make decisions, and lawmakers can be held accountable. For more information, visit 

All nursing home data are from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Nursing Home COVID-19 Public File (downloaded most recently on 12/2/2021 for most indicators; booster rates also based on data downloaded 12/10/2021). These data are self-reported by facilities to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) at least weekly. The five dashboard measures use this CMS data source. 

Several data points in the state fact sheets include general population state data (that is, not limited to nursing homes) as a denominator or stand-alone measure. These data are from the COVID Tracking Project (statewide positivity rate; downloaded most recently on 2/25/2021) and USAFacts (total deaths and cases in the state; downloaded most recently on 12/2/2021).

Data were analyzed by Scripps Gerontology Center at Miami University in Ohio; additional analysis and preparation of the dashboard by the AARP Public Policy Institute.


Key Definitions

  • COVID-19 deaths (residents): Total number of residents with suspected COVID-19 or a positive COVID-19 test result who died in the facility or another location as a result of COVID-19 related complications.
  • Total deaths (residents): This count includes new COVID-19 related deaths and non-COVID-19 related deaths. Includes residents who died in another location, such as a hospital.
  • COVID-19 deaths (staff): The number of deaths for staff and facility personnel with suspected COVID-19 or a positive COVID-19 test result.
  • COVID-19 cases: Number of residents, or staff and facility personnel, with new laboratory positive COVID-19 test results, as reported by the facility.
  • PPE shortage: Having an “urgent need” for each type of PPE, meaning that the nursing home will run out within seven days if additional supply is not found. For the “all PPE” measure, a shortage refers to having a shortage of one or more of the five categories: N95 masks, facemasks, eye protection, gowns, and gloves.
  • Staffing shortage: Identified staffing shortage for each personnel category based on facility needs and internal policies for staffing ratios for at least one week out of the four weeks in the reporting period.
  •  COVID-19 vaccinations: Count of individuals who have a completed vaccination, meaning that they have received all required shots; in the dashboard, we may refer to these as fully vaccinated. Individuals who are not fully vaccinated include those who are partially vaccinated, medically contraindicated, refused vaccination, or vaccination status unknown.

CDC has issued detailed instructions to nursing homes for reporting these data:

Inclusion Criteria

For the four-week measures, nursing homes were included only if the facility reported to CDC for all four weeks (nationally, 95% of facilities for the most recent four-week period, for states ranging from 78% to 100%). If a nursing facility reported but had missing data for a specific measure (this is rare), that facility is excluded from the calculation of that measure for the dashboard. 

Most nursing facilities with missing data are only missing the most recent week (ending 11/21/2021).  That is, most missing data are due to late responses, not skipped entirely.  To have the most current data possible, we must exclude those facilities that were late in reporting the most recent week of data as well as those with one or more weeks of non-response in earlier weeks.  

Vaccination data points are based on the most current week of data for each facility, as long as it is within the last four weeks.  Facilities do not need to report for all four weeks in order to be included; one week of good data is sufficient.  Facilities with missing or implausible data for each of the last four weeks are excluded from the calculation.

Aggregate counts of deaths and cases may be an undercount if there are facilities that are not reporting. Percentages or rates might be slightly biased if the average of non-reporting facilities differs significantly from the average of reporting facilities.

For the measures of cases and deaths “since 6/1/2020” and “since January 2020”, all nursing homes reporting at least one week of data are included. The national response rate is greater than 99% for both measures.


Comparability to Other Data Sources

The first reporting date for the CMS Nursing Home COVID-19 data was May 24, 2020, and includes all cases and deaths that were reported since the beginning of the year; however, retroactive reporting is not mandatory, and the accuracy of reporting at the state level is unknown.  Vaccination data were first reported for the week ending May 30, 2021, and are mandated as of the week ending June 13, 2021.

Data points that go back prior to the first reporting date, including the “since January 2020” counts of resident cases and deaths in the state fact sheets, may significantly undercount the total number of cases and deaths. At the national level, the CMS data source gives a significant undercount of the number of cases and deaths before June, compared to other sources that were reporting in real-time.

Since June, the CMS data are much more reliable and at the national level track well against data reported by the states (comparisons to individual states are difficult because each state categorizes and reports the data differently).

The state fact sheets include several measures of the percentage of total state deaths and cases that occurred among nursing home residents and nursing home staff. Because the denominator data is from a different source, the reported data may result in a percentage less than 0% or greater than 100%, which is impossible. The value of each such measure is capped at 100%, and values of less than 0% are marked as NA. These measures should not be used to compute the number of cases or deaths occurring outside of nursing homes. 

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Past Dashboard Coverage