En español | As nursing homes in many states start to emerge from a four-month lockdown, residents and their loved ones are desperate for in-person visits. The federal government has issued guidelines for reopening nursing homes to visitors, and more than half of the states have authorized limited visitation.
Where visits have resumed, they are very different from those before the pandemic. Nursing homes need to take many steps to minimize the chance of further transmission of COVID-19, which as of July 30 had appeared in about 14,000 long-term care facilities, causing nearly 63,000 deaths, according to data from the Kaiser Family Foundation.
The federal Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has laid out benchmarks for state and local officials to use in determining when visitors can return and how to safeguard against fresh outbreaks when they do. The guidelines are broad and nonbinding, and there will be differences, from state to state and nursing home to nursing home, in when visits resume and on what terms.
"Families need to have good communication with the facilities about what's going on in that facility,” says Lori Smetanka, executive director of the Consumer Voice, a nonprofit that advocates for the public on long-term care issues. “Are they following proper protocols? What are the expectations of the family or the staff? There needs to be really good communication and the setting of expectations so that everyone's on the same page."
Here are some details about the next steps toward reuniting with loved ones in long-term care.
Can I resume visiting my loved one?
As of mid-September, more than 40 states had authorized nursing homes to allow visits, under strict rules for distancing, monitoring and hygiene. About 20 of those states, and the District of Columbia, currently allow only outdoor visits. (Check the status of nursing home visits in your state.)
Florida, Indiana, Minnesota, New Jersey and South Dakota have adopted "essential caregiver" policies. In those states, long-term care facilities may allow greater access (for example, longer and more frequent visits) to a designated family member or other person who provides essential support to a resident, such as help with daily living activities like eating, bathing and grooming.
The CMS guidelines urge nursing homes to continue restricting visitation until they have gone at least 28 days without a new COVID-19 case originating on-site (as opposed to a facility admitting a coronavirus patient from a hospital). They should meet several additional benchmarks, according to the federal agency. These include:
- a decline in cases in the surrounding community;
- the ability to provide all residents with a baseline COVID-19 test and all staff with weekly tests;
- adequate supplies of personal protective equipment (PPE) and cleaning and disinfecting products; and
- no staff shortages.
AARP has advocated for increased funding to nursing homes to address staff and PPE shortages and to ramp up testing. Testing all of the nation's nearly 3 million nursing home residents and staff members just once would cost $440 million, according to the American Health Care Association and National Center for Assisted Living (AHCA/NCAL), an industry group.
"The cost of ongoing COVID testing of nursing home residents and staff is unsustainable without additional funding and support from federal and state governments,” a spokesperson for the organization says.
Where visits are allowed, they generally must be by appointment, during specified hours. In some states, only one or two people are allowed to visit a particular resident at a time. Even those states allowing indoor visits are encouraging people to meet loved ones outdoors. Research has shown that the virus spreads less readily in the open air.
What kinds of health checks will nursing homes run on visitors?
The federal guidelines call for everyone entering a facility to undergo “100 percent screening,” including:
- checking visitors’ temperatures,
- questioning them about symptoms and potential exposure, and
- observing them for any symptoms or signs of infection.
The CMS recommendations do not address testing visitors for COVID-19.
“We will need to continue to evaluate ways to make it safe for visitors to enter our buildings without posing a risk to residents,” AHCA/NACL said in a statement to AARP, “whether that is through testing with rapid results, wearing personal protective equipment, limiting who visitors can interact with when they come in or other ways to keep residents safe.”
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Will I have to wear a mask?
Probably. The federal guidelines say visitors should be required to “wear a cloth face covering or face mask for the duration of their visit,” and states that allow visitation are generally doing so.
The guidelines also call on nursing homes to ensure that visitors practice hand hygiene, but they do not address whether facilities should provide masks or sanitizer. LeadingAge, an organization that represents nonprofit providers of elder care, notes that many nursing homes are “desperately in need” of PPE to cover their own needs.
"If it were me, I would assume that I would have to bring a mask or hand sanitizer with me,” Smetanka says. “I think that's something that facilities are going to want to control themselves, to make sure the masks and the sanitizers are appropriate for use,” she adds, but “people should be prepared to bring their own."
Will I have to stay 6 feet from my loved one?
The CMS guidelines call on nursing homes that allow visitors to ensure social distancing, but they do not specify what that should entail. States that have authorized visits are generally mandating that facilities enforce the 6-foot rule.
Nursing homes might opt to limit visitors’ movements to enforce physical distancing. In its own updated COVID-19 guidelines for nursing homes, the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) lists several “considerations for visitation when restrictions are being relaxed,” including:
- limiting visitors to their loved one’s room or another area designated by the facility,
- requiring visits to be scheduled in advance,
- permitting visits only during select hours, and
- allowing just one or two people at a time to visit a given resident.
What else can I do to minimize risks to residents?
Don't go if you feel ill, “even if those symptoms are mild,” or if you've had close contact with someone with COVID-19 in the previous two weeks, advises Kara Jacobs Slifka, a medical officer in the CDC's Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion.
Jennifer Schrack, an associate professor at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health who specializes in the epidemiology of aging, also emphasizes thinking about possible recent exposure: “Have you yourself been isolated? Have you minimized your risk? Or are you essential personnel who's going into the office, who's going into a grocery store because you work there? Are you going into a hospital every day because you work there?"
Schrack also suggests keeping visits on the short side. “The longer you're in a small or enclosed space with somebody, the greater the risk of transmission,” she says.
Another option is to make some visits virtual. Videoconferencing and chat platforms like Zoom, Skype and FaceTime have become lifelines for residents and families during the pandemic, and continuing to use them at times even after lockdowns lift can minimize opportunities for illness to spread.
AARP is advocating for a federal requirement that nursing homes support virtual visits between residents and families.
"With families today spread out all over the country, virtual visitation can be an important long-term way for family members to stay in touch with their loved ones,” says Bill Sweeney, AARP's senior vice president for government affairs. “Everyone should have the ability to do that."
Editor’s Note: This story has been updated to reflect new information.