En español | When you're eating to keep diabetes in check, you're also eating to avoid other health problems. Most notably: cardiovascular disease. Almost 7 in 10 people with diabetes over age 65 will die from some form of heart disease. About 1 in 6 will die of stroke. That's why diabetes-friendly diets tend to be heart-healthy, too.
"Diabetes is more than a blood sugar problem,” explains nutritionist Jill Weisenberger, author of The Beginner's Guide to What to Eat with Type 2 Diabetes. “Having diabetes at least doubles the risk of having a heart attack, and it increases the risk of several types of cancer. That's why we don't have the luxury of taking a single-eye view of blood sugar only.”
The American Diabetes Association (ADA) doesn't endorse any one specific diet. What it does endorse are eating plans that emphasize well-portioned amounts of nutrient-dense foods that will help you lose weight or maintain a healthy weight; keep your blood glucose, blood pressure and cholesterol in your target ranges; and delay or prevent diabetes complications. The following five superfoods check off all those boxes.
Superfood No. 1: Legumes/beans
It's easy to see how pinto, navy, kidney and black beans earned their superfood bona fides. They're packed with vitamins and minerals like iron, magnesium and potassium. Plus, they're high in fiber. And studies show that diets rich in legumes in general are associated with healthier blood sugar levels in both the short term and the long term, Weisenberger says: “There are likely many reasons for this because these foods are loaded with health boosters such as resistant starch and polyphenol phytonutrients.” In your gut, good bacteria “make a meal out of the resistant starch and fermentable fibers and, in the process, produce compounds beneficial to insulin sensitivity."
In a small study published in The Journal of Nutrition, swapping potatoes or rice with pulses lowered participants’ blood glucose levels by more than 20 percent.
Not big on beans, chickpeas, lentils and the like? Get creative. Blend up to a half cup of white beans with one cup marinara sauce and a splash of balsamic vinegar for a creamy, better-for-you “vodka” sauce in Italian dishes, suggests Jackie Newgent, a registered dietitian nutritionist and author of The Clean & Simple Diabetes Cookbook. Other ideas: Smash together up to one-quarter cup chickpeas with one avocado and a squirt of lemon juice and use as a topper for tacos or whole-grain toast. Or chop up pinto or black beans and use them as an equal swap in place of up to one-third of the ground meat in a burger patty.
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Superfood No. 2: Dark green leafy veggies
Plenty of research shows that eating dark leafy greens — we're talking spinach, kale, broccoli, collard greens — can lower your risk for type 2 diabetes. Turns out, they also play a role in managing the condition. For starters, these greens are low in calories. And because they're also low in carbohydrates, people with diabetes can eat lots of them without worrying about skyrocketing blood sugar levels or gaining weight.
To make sure you get a day's worth, Newgent suggests including them at every meal. For breakfast, toss spinach or kale into scrambled eggs, a tofu scramble or omelet. At lunchtime, stuff greens into a wrapped sandwich or stir several handfuls of baby spinach into a bowl of soup or chili. For dinner, serve an entrée — liked grilled fish — on a bed of steamed leafy greens. Or blend greens into hummus with a splash of lemon juice and serve as an appetizer dip.
Superfood No. 3: Nuts
People with diabetes are at much higher risk for cardiovascular disease. But diet can make a difference. Case in point: A study of more than 16,000 adults with diabetes, published in Circulation Research, suggests that people with type 2 who ate at least five 1-ounce servings of peanuts or tree nuts — like walnuts, almonds or hazelnuts — per week were 17 percent less likely to develop cardiovascular disease than those who ate one or fewer servings per month. What's more, nuts are low in carbohydrates and are a good source of fat and protein, so they help you stay full while keeping blood sugar low, says Dahlia Gomez, a dietitian and spokesperson for the Association of Diabetes Care and Education Specialists. “This makes them an ideal snack for people living with diabetes.”
But keep in mind: Nuts are high in calories. Limit your daily intake to 1 to 1.5 ounces (about 1/4 cup).
Superfood No. 4: Fatty fish
Beefing up the amount of omega-3 fatty acids in your diet — whether it's from supplements, enriched foods or foods naturally high in omega-3s — doesn't reduce the risk of developing diabetes; nor does it improve blood sugar control in people with the disease, found a review of studies involving more than 120,000 people with and without diabetes, published in The BMJ.
So why does the ADA recommend eating fatty fish like salmon, tuna, mackerel and sardines twice a week? “The omega-3 fatty acids in fish, specifically EPA and DHA, are associated with less heart disease and dementia,” says Weisenberger, adding that those with diabetes face an increased risk of both conditions.
To meet the ADA's recommended amount, “consider using fish in its many forms — fresh, frozen or canned,” suggests Melinda Maryniuk, a registered dietitian nutritionist in Boston.
Superfood No. 5: Berries
What makes berries so super for people with diabetes? Scientists aren't entirely sure. “They're loaded with nutrients and phytonutrients,” says Weisenberger. And “it appears that some of the phytonutrients may cause decreased glucose absorption in the intestines and better insulin sensitivity” (that is, how responsive the body's cells are to insulin, the hormone that regulates glucose in the blood).
A review of studies published in 2019 in the journal Food & Function suggests that regularly consuming berries — especially blueberries, cranberries, strawberries and raspberries — may help people with diabetes better manage their condition, mainly by improving post-meal blood sugar spikes. Researchers found that to be the case with all types of berries — fresh, frozen, even dried.
An easy way to get your berry fix: Create several alternating layers of berries and Greek-style yogurt (also a diabetes superfood) in a milkshake glass, suggests Newgent, then sprinkle with toasted almonds or roasted pistachios. For the more adventurous, grill or pan-grill skewers of strawberries, drizzle with yogurt, and sprinkle with lemon zest and pistachios or toasted sliced almonds.