Life can be full of financial surprises. Imagine that you’ve been told that both your furnace and roof need replacing, and your car requires expensive repairs. On top of that, your spouse has stopped working due to illness, and the medical bills continue to mount.
Unfortunately, you’ve already drained your small emergency fund. Or you didn’t get around to building one. Whatever the reason, you need to come up with some serious cash right now.
Many Americans are in a similar bind. According to “Inside the Wallets of Working Americans,” a recent survey by Salary Finance, 45 percent of the 3,000 respondents reported that they feel financially stressed, 55 percent said they’ve had less cash on hand over the past 12 months than in the previous year, and 68 percent reported they don’t have money set aside for emergencies.
Your first impulse may be to tap your retirement fund. In the Salary Finance study, 18 percent of the respondents said they had just done so.
After years of contributing to your 401(k), 403(b) or 457, you’ve accumulated a nice nest egg. But should you borrow from it? How do these loans work?
While there are some advantages, B. Kelly Graves, a certified financial planner (CFP) and executive vice president at Carroll Financial Associates in Charlotte, North Carolina, advises against it. “You’ll be withdrawing money from investments that may be earning a nice return. And it’s too easy to not repay a loan, which would ultimately hurt your retirement.”
What if you just withdrew the cash you need instead? The decisions you make now as you face a temporary cash crunch will affect your financial future.
1. An early distribution is the most expensive option
Simply withdrawing funds from your retirement account would be costly if you haven’t yet reached age 59½, says Chris Chen, a CFP at Insight Financial Strategists LLC in Lincoln, Massachusetts. “You’d be required to pay federal and state income tax on those funds, plus a 10 percent early withdrawal penalty. The actual cost would depend on your tax bracket.”
For example, if your federal tax bracket is 22 percent, the penalty would make it 32 percent. Add the 5 percent state tax in Massachusetts, or the 13 percent state tax in California, for example, and your tax would come to 37 percent or 45 percent, respectively. That’s expensive money.
Doing so may also hurt you down the road, Chen says. “People rationalize that they will put the money back into their retirement account when their cash flow is better. When will that be?”
2. Retirement plan loans have costs, risks and few benefits
If you decide to take a loan instead, the amount will be limited to $50,000 or 50 percent of your vested account balance, whichever is less. You’ll be selling shares to generate cash, with five years to repay the loan. As you do, you’ll buy back shares, likely at a higher price. “You may miss the best days and years in the market,” says Paresh Shah, a CFP at PareShah Partners LLC in Hicksville, New York.
You’ll also pay interest, but you’re paying it to yourself. You can easily pay off the loan via payroll deduction — but you will pay with after-tax dollars. Taxes will be due again when you take qualified distributions in retirement.
What’s more, it’s likely that you won’t have the money to continue regular contributions to your account. In fact, some plans require you to stop contributing for a time after the loan.
Should you leave your job — voluntarily or not — you’ll be required to repay any outstanding balance within a year. Otherwise, the IRS will consider it a distribution and you’ll owe taxes on it. If you’re younger than 59½, you’ll pay a 10 percent penalty on top of income tax.
What are the benefits? The money won’t be taxed if you follow the rules and the repayment schedule. “Also, it may be a lower-cost alternative to other sources of cash, as the interest rate may be lower,” says Nicole Sullivan, a CFP at Prism Planning Partners in Libertyville, Illinois. “And it won’t affect your credit report.” But you’d better create a plan to pay it off, and stick to it, Chen says. “The longer you postpone putting the money back, the more growth you’ll be giving up.”
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3. Consider the Rule of 55 if you can retire early
How about the Rule of 55? If you’re between age 55 and 59½, and you’ve decided to stop working, this provision allows you to take 401(k) withdrawals — without the 10 percent penalty.
“To be eligible, you’ll need to leave your job during or after the calendar year in which you turn age 55,” says Mark Charnet, the founder & CEO of American Prosperity Group in Pompton Plains, New Jersey. “However, you can’t quit your job at age 50 and ask to start early distributions at age 55 — unless you qualify for a hardship withdrawal.”
Check with your company to see if it offers this benefit. Not all companies do.
4. Your adviser may suggest better alternatives
Fortunately, there are cheaper ways to raise cash — a home equity line of credit (HELOC) or a bank loan against the cash value of your life insurance policy, Shah says.
Sullivan suggests looking to your Roth IRA. You can withdraw principal penalty-free at any time. And if you’re older than 59½, Roth earnings can be accessed without taxes or early withdrawal penalties after a five-year holding period. Chen says a home equity loan may be attractive. The interest rates are usually low, and you avoid the tax and penalty that come with a 401(k) loan. “Still, home equity loans usually have variable interest rates. Rising rates may provide a nasty surprise.”
Note to self: Build that emergency fund
Once you’re on solid ground, make putting aside cash reserves a priority, says Peter Casciotta, owner of Asset Management & Advisory Services in Cape Coral, Florida. “It will reduce personal stress because you’ll have the funds to cover any unforeseen expenses.”
Patricia Amend has been a lifestyle writer and editor for 30 years. She was a staff writer at Inc. magazine; a reporter at the Fidelity Publishing Group; and a senior editor at Published Image, a financial education company that was acquired by Standard & Poor’s.