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PPI Research examines the prospects for secure middle-class retirement.  


See also personal stories of struggling middle-class Americans.

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PPI Staff

George A. (Sandy) Mackenzie, M. Phil.

Senior Strategic Policy Advisor, PPI Economics Team

Sandy Mackenzie, AARP

George A. (Sandy) Mackenzie, M. Phil.

Sandy Mackenzie leads PPI's work on employer-provided pensions, and has been with PPI since January 2008. He is a recognized authority on annuities and the comparative aspects of employer-provided pensions, and has written extensively on these and related topics. His interest in pension issues began when he was a member of the staff of the International Monetary Fund, where he worked for 28 years. Most of his IMF career was spent in the Fiscal Affairs Department, where among other duties he led missions advising on a range of issues to countries in most of the world's regions, including two missions to South American countries to advise on pension reform.

He has also taught courses in public economics, and money, banking and financial markets at the University of California Washington Center. He hails originally from Halifax, Nova Scotia, and holds degrees from Dalhousie University and Oxford University.  He and his wife, Carolyn, have one child, a daughter.

Areas of expertise

Employer-provided pensions, annuities, fiscal policy, comparative retirement finance

Selected publications

Annuity Markets and Pension Reform. 2006. Cambridge University Press.

The Decline of the Traditional Pension — A Comparative Study of Threats to Retirement Security. 2010. Cambridge University Press.

"Employer-provided Pensions: Less to Count On". 2009. With Ke Bin Wu. AARP Public Policy Institute.


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