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PBS Documentary

The Longoria Affair

Exploring an incident that may have kicked off the Mexican American civil rights movement

Lyndon Johnson and Dr. Héctor García early 1960s

Lyndon Johnson and Dr. Héctor García early 1960s — Courtesy of the Héctor P. García Archives at Texas A&M University

En español | Three Rivers, Texas, 1949. Beatrice Longoria wants to bury the remains of her husband, Felix, a soldier killed in the Philippines during World War II. But the owner of the only funeral parlor in town won’t allow the family to use the chapel because, he says, “the whites wouldn't like it.” So Longoria contacts Dr. Héctor García, a local civil rights activist, who fires off telegrams to elected officials demanding justice. The only response comes from freshman U.S. Senator Lyndon Baines Johnson, who arranges for Longoria to be buried with full military honors at Arlington National Cemetery.

So begins The Longoria Affair, a documentary airing November 9 on PBS as part of the Independent Lens series. Director John J. Valadez’s film packs interviews, archival news footage and present-day shots of the Texas town into an efficient, well-balanced 52 minutes. What could have almost been dismissed as an obscure case of past injustice is revealed to have present-day implications when Santiago Hernandez, a musician and activist, tries to honor Felix Longoria by naming a local post office after him and finds the present-day Three Rivers community divided over his legacy.

Felix Longoria

Felix Longoria — Courtesy of the Héctor P. García Archives at Texas A&M University

Fortunately, the film ends with a touching scene honoring Longoria and the community coming together. A sign, surely, that progress is built on the past.

And that’s wisely where the film spends most of its mileage, using the long-term relationship between García and Johnson as a sharp lens to examine the role the Longoria incident played in jump-starting the movement for Mexican American civil rights.

“García had been challenging racism for years, and mostly he was ignored,” says Valadez of the civil rights advocate who, during the war, commanded a field hospital near the front lines. “But the thing that was unique about the Longoria incident was that it was a soldier who had fought and died for his country.”

Actor Tony Plana, who narrates the documentary, explains: “I think it was deeply affecting and highly controversial and emotional to have a GI hero come back and be denied access to a funeral parlor, after he gave his life for his country. It was too boldfaced, too insulting and damaging for [García] not to act on it.”

True enough, but it is the García-Johnson relationship that is at the heart of the film. When he first got out of college, Johnson was a principal at a segregated and poor Mexican American school in Cotulla, Texas, and he had never forgotten the squalor and racism he had witnessed. The documentary illustrates Johnson’s long-standing affection for the Latino community — for instance, he spent much of his first month’s principal salary to buy sports equipment for the children — but also explains how he couldn’t be too conspicuous in working on the behalf of Latinos out of fear of losing the votes of white Texans.

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