From the mid-1970s until her retirement in the early 2000s, Elma Holder did as much as anyone to protect some of America's most vulnerable citizens — older nursing home residents — from neglect and abuse. As the cofounder of the National Citizens' Coalition for Nursing Home Reform (NCCNHR), Holder fought tirelessly to improve conditions in, and increase oversight of, long-term care facilities. The effort culminated in passage of the landmark Nursing Home Reform Law of 1987. After that, Holder worked just as hard to make sure the law was aggressively enforced.
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Are nursing homes “over-regulated?” she asked rhetorically in a 2004 interview with the Oklahoman newspaper.
“Well, are the schools in your town over-regulated?
“I think most parents view school regulations as necessary public standards. Why should it be any different for old people in nursing homes, where failure to adhere to public standards can result in the premature death of a resident?”
Holder also pushed for nursing home residents to have more control over their own lives and sought to give a voice to those who suffered largely in silence.
In 1985, for example, she organized what may have been the first public opinion survey of nursing home residents. That same year she brought nursing home residents from across the country to a symposium in Clearwater Beach, Fla., and arranged for health care professionals to tend to them at a local hotel. That research revealed, among other things, that nursing home residents were concerned about being able to make their own choices on everything from their roommates to when they could have a cup of coffee, take a bath or iron their clothes.
Holder attended the University of Oklahoma, where she received a master's degree in public health, and began working in the late 1960s as a geriatric consultant for the Medicare survey division of the Oklahoma State Health Department. Early on, she noticed a curious phenomenon: Nursing home staffs seemed to know when survey teams were coming, and the teams' reports often glossed over conditions at the homes.
When she wrote a report pointing out these concerns, “my supervisor told me it would never see the light of day,” she recalled in the 2004 Oklahoman interview. ”I noticed that the citizens we were trying to protect never took Health Department officials to lunch — only the owners did! Others with authority in the Health Department thanked me for my effort, but nothing happened.”
Disillusioned with her Oklahoma experience, Holder moved to Washington, D.C., to work as a health consultant for the National Council on Aging. She would remain in the nation's capital for the next three decades. During that time, she worked for Ralph Nader's Retired Professional Action Group and as coordinator of the Long-Term Care Task Force of the Gray Panthers, the activist organization founded by another Older American Hall of Fame member, Maggie Kuhn.
In 1975 Holder organized a group of reform advocates who attended a nursing home industry conference in Washington. That effort, one of the first times in which reformers took their demands for change directly to nursing home operators, led to the formation of NCCNHR. Two years later, Holder coauthored the book that became the nursing home reform movement's Bible, Nursing Homes: A Citizens' Action Guide.
Next page: Lobbying for the nursing home reform act. »