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[ edit ] Origins
The United States Marine Corps traces its institutional roots to the Continental Marines of the American Revolutionary War , formed at Tun Tavern in Philadelphia , by a resolution of the Second Continental Congress on 10 November 1775, to raise 2 battalions of Marines. That date is regarded and celebrated as the date of the Marine Corps' "birthday". At the end of the American Revolution, both the Continental Navy and Continental Marines were disbanded in April 1783. Although individual Marines stayed on for the few American naval vessels left, the last Continental Marine was discharged in September 1783. The institution itself would not be resurrected until 1798. In that year, in preparation for the Naval War with France , Congress created the United States Marine Corps.  Marines had been enlisted by the War Department as early as August 1797  for service in the new build frigates authorized by Congress. The "Act to provide a Naval Armament" of March 18, 1794  authorizing them had specified the numbers of Marines to be recruited for each frigate.
The Marines' most famous action of this period occurred during the First Barbary War (1801–1805) against the Barbary pirates ,  when William Eaton and First Lieutenant Presley O'Bannon led seven Marines and 300 mercenaries in an effort to capture Tripoli . Though they only reached Derna , the action at Tripoli has been immortalized in the Marines' hymn and the Mameluke Sword carried by Marine officers. 
During the War of 1812 , Marine naval detachments took part in the great frigate duels that characterized the war, which were the first American victories in the conflict. Their most significant contributions were delaying the British march to Washington, D.C. at the Battle of Bladensburg and holding the center of Gen. Andrew Jackson 's defensive line at the defense of New Orleans . By the end of the war, the Marines had acquired a well-deserved reputation as expert marksmen , especially in ship-to-ship actions. 
After the war, the Marine Corps fell into a depression that ended with the appointment of Archibald Henderson as its fifth commandant in 1820. Under his tenure, the Corps took on expeditionary duties in the Caribbean , the Gulf of Mexico , Key West , West Africa , the Falkland Islands , and Sumatra . Commandant Henderson is credited with thwarting President Jackson's attempts to combine and integrate the Marine Corps with the Army.  Instead, Congress passed the Act for the Better Organization of the Marine Corps in 1834, stipulating that the Corps was part of the Department of the Navy as a sister service to the U.S. Navy.  This would be the first of many times that the existence of the Corps was challenged.
Commandant Henderson volunteered the Marines for service in the Seminole Wars of 1835, personally leading nearly half of the entire Corps (two battalions) to war. A decade later, in the Mexican–American War (1846–1848), the Marines made their famed assault on Chapultepec Palace in Mexico City, which would be later celebrated by the phrase "From The Halls of Montezuma" in Marines' hymn. In the 1850s, the Marines would see further service in Panama and Asia, escorting Matthew Perry's East India Squadron on its historic trip to the Far East. 
With their vast service in foreign engagements, the Marine Corps played a moderate role in the Civil War (1861–1865); their most prominent task was blockade duty. As more and more states seceded from the Union , about half of the Corps' officers also left the Union to join the Confederacy and form the Confederate States Marine Corps , which ultimately played little part in the war. The battalion of recruits formed for the First Battle of Bull Run (First Manassas) performed poorly, retreating with the rest of the Union forces. 
[ edit ] Interim: Civil War to World War I
The remainder of the 19th century was marked by declining strength and introspection about the mission of the Marine Corps. The U.S. Navy's transition from sail to steam put into question the need for Marines on naval ships. Meanwhile, Marines served as a convenient resource for interventions and landings to protect American lives and interests overseas. The Corps was involved in over 28 separate interventions in the 30 years from the end of the American Civil War to the end of 19th century. They would also be called upon to stem political and labor unrest within the United States.  Under Commandant Jacob Zeilin 's tenure, Marine customs and traditions took shape: the Corps adopted the Marine Corps emblem on 19 November 1868. It was also during this time that " The Marines' Hymn " was first heard. Around 1883, the Marines adopted their current motto " Semper Fidelis " ( English : Always Faithful ). 
During the Spanish–American War (1898), Marines led U.S. forces ashore in the Philippines , Cuba , and Puerto Rico , demonstrating their readiness for deployment. At Guantánamo Bay, Cuba , the Marines seized an advanced naval base that remains in use today. Between 1899 and 1916, the Corps continued its record of vigorous participation in foreign expeditions, including the Philippine–American War , the Boxer Rebellion in China (1899–1901), Panama , the Cuban Pacifications, the Perdicaris Incident in Morocco , Veracruz , Santo Domingo , and the Banana Wars in Haiti and Nicaragua ; the experiences gained in counter-insurgency and guerrilla operations during this period were consolidated into the Small Wars Manual . 
ANOTHER WONDERFUL INFORMATIVE POST, YOU MUST BE A PROFESSOR OR LOVE TO DO RESEARCH, WHICHEVER KEEP IT UP; WE ARE BLESSED TO HAVE YOU DOING THE LEG WORK...HA! HA! Ric