1 Harrington, C., H. Carrillo, and C. S. Crawford. Nursing Facilities, Staffing, Residents, and Facility Deficiencies, 1997 through 2003, Aug. 2004.
2 GAO. Nursing Home Quality: Prevalence of Serious Problems, While Declining, Reinforces Importance of Enhanced Oversight, July 2003.
3 OIG. Nursing Home Deficiency Trends and Survey and Certification Process Consistency, March 2003.
4 GAO, 2003; OIG, 2003.
5 Sen. Charles Grassley. Letter to CMS, July 7, 2004, http://www.canhr.org/news/GrassleyLetter.html.
6 Dunbar, D., and J. Sandlin. "Barriers to Effective Nursing Home Enforcement." Presented at CMS Leadership Summit, April 19—22, 2004; Pear, R. "Penalties for Nursing Homes Show a Drop in Last 4 Years," New York Times, Aug. 6, 2004.
7 OIG. Nursing Home Enforcement: The Use of Civil Money Penalties, April 2005.
8 HHS. "Nursing Home Care Improving in Many Areas New CMS Data Show, New Steps Initiated." Press release, Dec. 22, 2004.
9 Dembner, A., and B. Dedman. "Nursing Homes Show Uneven Gains: National effort at grading has mixed results." Boston Globe, Dec. 13, 2004; Dembner, A. "US to push for better nursing home care: Bush administration seeks expansion of 2-year-old program." Boston Globe, Dec. 23, 2004.
10 HHS, 2004; Dembner, 2004.
Written by Bernadette Wright, Ph.D., AARP Public Policy Institute
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